ИИ улучшил работу редактора генома, предсказав результаты

ИИ улучшил работу редактора генома, предсказав результаты

С редактором генома CRISPR-Cas9 уже довольно неплохо научились обращаться. Однако при довольно хорошем знании технологии и принципов ее работы, результат, который получится в ходе редактирования, не всегда предсказуем. Связано это с особенностями самого процесса редактирования и именно его исход научился предсказывать искусственный интеллект, еще сильнее улучшив результативность метода редактирования генома.

Для начала хотелось бы пояснить, в чем же состоит основная проблема. Как ни странно, непосредственно редактор генома тут почти ни при чем. Белок Cas9 в данном случае выполняет функцию лезвия и вырезает требуемый компонент генома. Но далее на «пустое место» нужно вставить другой компонент. Тут используется матричная ДНК, которая, если объяснить простым языком, выступает в качестве «донора» материалов. Этот процесс носит название репарация ДНК. Есть и другие системы, которые работают по схожему принципу в отсутствии матричной ДНК, но именно в них и заключается проблема: после их работы на месте замены генетического материала могут остаться делеции (грубо говоря, отсутствующие участки). Исход подобных вмешательств ранее можно было вычислить лишь опытным путем.

Как передает редакция журнала Nature, группа ученых из Массачусетского Технологического Института (MIT) разработала программу на основе искусственного интеллекта, которая просчитывает результат изменения генома. ИИ способен сообщить, какая именно последовательность образуется в месте вмешательства после редактирования, а также как минимум в 50% случаев сообщает о том, могут ли после завершения операции остаться делеции. Кроме того, если использовать ИИ для прогнозирования всех этапов, то точность предсказания можно повысить до 5-11%, а это очень хороший результат.

Для того, чтобы научить ИИ прогнозировать исход вмешательства в геном, ученые создали библиотеку из 2000 направляющих РНК для Cas9 (именно РНК указывает белку, где именно нужно разрезать молекулу). Далее из них было выбрано 14, которые могли после репарации вызывать появление лишнего нуклеотида, а затем ИИ выбрал те, которые наиболее часто приводили к ошибкам репарации. На основании этих данных была построена «модель поведения», которая уже использовалась и для других операций. Ученым уже удалось эффективно и без проявления побочных эффектов отредактировать мутации в клетках с синдромом Германского-Пудлака и болезнью Менекса.

Эту и другие новости вы можете обсудить в нашем чате в Телеграм.

Источник: news-ria.ru
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