Открыто новое место зарождения клеток крови в человеческом организме

Открыто новое место зарождения клеток крови в человеческом организме

Как сообщает издание Cell Stem Cell, группа исследователей из Колумбийского центра трансляционной иммунологии несколько лет назад заметила весьма интересную закономерность: у многих пациентов, перенесших трансплантацию кишечника, в организме начали находить новую область, в которой начало осуществляться кроветворение. Ее назвали «кровяной химерой», так как она воспроизводила собственные клетки крови реципиента, но на основе тканей донора. Углубившись в изучение этого феномена, эксперты совершили ряд открытий, давших более полное представление о физиологии, которые в будущем помогут улучшить процедуру трансплантации органов.

Давно известно, что основным местом продукции кровяных клеток является костный мозг, однако открытие американских ученых говорит о том, что кровь может производиться и в клетках кишечника. Причем не только у людей, перенесших пересадку органа.

В ходе работы эксперты наблюдали за составом крови и фенотипом клеток у 21 пациента, получивших донорский кишечник на протяжении 5 лет после операции. В итоге в слизистой оболочке кишечника, патчах Пейера и брыжеечных лимфатических узлах были обнаружены гемопоэтические стволовые клетки и клетки-предшественники. Анализ циркулирующих после трансплантации донорских Т-клеток позволил предположить, что они проходят своего рода «отбор» в лимфоидных органах реципиента для приобретения иммунологической толерантности. То есть, чужеродные по факту клетки перестают быть таковыми и не подвергаются атаке собственной иммунной системой.

Открыто новое место зарождения клеток крови в человеческом организме

Схематичное изображение процесса

«В своем исследовании мы продемонстрировали наличие связи между разными клетками крови. Этот процесс защищает трансплантат от воздействия иммунной системы.» — заявил один из авторов работы Меган Сайкс.

В данный момент не известно, какое именно количество крови вырабатывается в структурах кишечника, но ученые предполагают, что эта цифра может достигать до 10%. Новое открытие поможет лучше узнать работу иммунной системы и разработать способы защиты органов от воздействия аутоиммунных реакций.

Эту и другие новости вы можете обсудить в нашем чате в Телеграм.

Источник: news-ria.ru
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