Подробная карта синапсов мозга приоткрыла завесу над загадкой мышления

Подробная карта синапсов мозга приоткрыла завесу над загадкой мышления

Представьте карту с каждой звездой в галактике. Карту настолько подробную, что на ней указано, как выглядит каждая звезда, из чего состоит, с какой другой звездой связана великими законами физики космоса. Хотя мы пока не имеет такой астрономической карты небес, благодаря монументальному исследованию, опубликованному на прошлой неделе в Neuron, у нас появилась подобная карта мозга.

Если бы каждый нейрон был галактикой, синапсы — небольшие структуры, точками рассыпаные вдоль змеевидных продолжений нейронов — это звезды. Группа ученых из Эдинбургского университета в Великобритании построила первую подробную карту каждого синапса в мозге мыши.

Карта мозга: ключ к загадке мышления

Используя генетически модифицированных мышей, ученые буквально заставляли каждый синапс загораться под флуоресцентным светом по всему мозгу, будто звезды на небе. И, подобно тому, как звезды отличаются одна от другой, ученые обнаружили, что и синапсы очень разнообразны, однако соблюдаются закономерности, которые могут поддерживать работу памяти и мышления.

«В человеческом мозгу больше синапсов, чем звезд в галактике. Мозг — самый сложный объект, известный нам, и понимание его соединений на таком уровне будет важным шагом вперед в раскрытии его загадок», говорит ведущий автор работы доктор Сет Грант из Центра клинических наук о мозге.

Подробные карты показали фундаментальный закон активности мозга. С помощью машинного обучения команда ученых разделила примерно один миллиард синапсов по всему мозгу на 37 категорий по типу. Вот ведь в чем суть: когда наборы нейронов получают электрическую информацию, например, выбирая между различными решениями проблемы, уникальные подтипы синапсов, разбросанные среди разных нейронов, единодушно искрятся активностью.

Другими словами, синапсы бывают разных типов. И каждый тип может контролировать мысль, решение или воспоминание.

Неудивительно, что нейробиологи отреагировали на работу весьма положительно.

«Вау», прокомментировал Бен Сандерс из Университета Миннесоты.

Это «удивительная статья, каталогизирующая разнообразие и распределение подтипов синапса по всему мозгу мыши», пишет нейрогенетик Кевин Митчелл. Это «подчеркивает тот факт, что синапсы — это ключевые вычислительные элементы нервной системы».

Соединение коннектомы

Интерес ученых в создании «синаптомы» — первого цельного каталога синапсов в мозге мыши — вышел из гораздо большего проекта: коннектомы.

Если коротко, коннектома — это все нейронные соединения внутри вас. Как говорит доктор Себастьян Сьюнг, коннектома — это биологический базис того, кто вы есть — ваших воспоминаний, личности, ваших мыслей и рассуждений. Поймайте коннектому — и однажды ученые смогут вас восстановить при помощи эмуляции целого мозга.

И все же, коннектома описывает только то, как нейроны функционально разговаривают друг с другом. Где в мозге это закодировано физически.

Здесь в игру вступают синапсы. Нейробиологам давно известно, что синапсы передают информацию между нейронами, используя химические вещества и электричество. Были также намеки на то, что синапсы сильно разнятся в зависимости от белков, которые содержат, но это различие обыкновенно игнорировали. До недавних пор, большинство ученых считали, что реальные расчеты происходят в нейронном теле — луковичной части нейрона, из которого выходят ответвления.

До сих пор не было никакого способа взглянуть на морфологию и функцию синапсов по всему мозгу, объясняют авторы работы. Обычно мы были сосредоточены на сопоставлении этих важных точек соединения в небольших областях.

«Карту синаптомы можно использовать для того, чтобы понять, связано ли пространственное распределение синапсов с архитектурой коннектомы», считают ученые.

Подробная карта синапсов мозга приоткрыла завесу над загадкой мышления

И если да, будущие эмуляторы мозга найдут, наконец, точку опоры.

Карта синаптомы

Чтобы построить синаптому мыши, авторы разработали план под названием SYNMAP. Они начали с генетически модифицированных мышей, у которых синапсы светились разными цветами. Каждый синапс плотно укомплектован разными белками, среди которых PSD-95 и SAP102 — самые известные господа. Не пугайтесь названий. Авторы добавили к ним светящиеся белки, которые выступали в роли фонариков, подсвечивающих каждый синапс в мозгу.

В общем, сначала ученые изменили биологию мыши, заставив ее синапсы светиться под флуоресцентным светом.

Затем они кропотливо нарезали мозг на кусочки, использовали микроскоп для съемки синапсов в разных областях мозга и собрали фотографии вместе.

Подробная карта синапсов мозга приоткрыла завесу над загадкой мышления

Изображение синапсов напоминает неопытному глазу плотно упакованную звездную карту — вроде той, что заснял «Хаббл» недавно. Категоризация каждого синапса выходит за рамки способностей (и времени) любого человека, поэтому ученые использовали новые методы классификации при помощи машинного обучения и разработали алгоритм, который парсит эти данные — более 10 терабайтов — автоматически, не нуждаясь в надзоре.

Физическая коннектома

Сперва ученых поразили «выразительные схемы» сияющих синапсов. Один помеченный белок — PSD-95 — казалось, тусовался в более удаленных от центра частях мозга, где протекают высшие когнитивные функции. Хотя области перекрываются, другой светящийся белок предпочел больше внутренних областей мозга.

При ближайшем рассмотрении выяснилось, что два светящихся белка представляют разные наборы синапсов, объяснили авторы. Каждая область мозга имеет характерную «сигнатуру синаптомы». Подобно отпечаткам пальцев, которые отличаются формой и размером, разные области мозга, похоже, содержат синапсы, отличающиеся по составу белка, размеру и численности.

Используя специально разработанный алгоритм машинного обучения, ученые классифицировали синапсы на 37 подтипов. Что примечательно, области мозга, связанные с более высокими способностями рассуждения и мышления, также содержали самую разнообразную популяцию синапсов, в то время как «области мозга рептилий», были более однородными в содержании синапсов.

Подробная карта синапсов мозга приоткрыла завесу над загадкой мышления

Чтобы увидеть, помогает ли разнообразие синапсов в обработке информации, ученые применили компьютерное моделирование, показывающее, как синапсы отвечают на обычные электрические схемы в гиппокампе — области мозга, важной для обучения и памяти. Гиппокамп — это одна из областей, которые демонстрируют поразительное разнообразие в подтипах синапсов.

Что важно, каждый тип обработки электрической информации передается в уникальную карту синаптомы — измените ввод, изменится синаптома.

Подробная карта синапсов мозга приоткрыла завесу над загадкой мышления

Это предполагает, что мозг может обрабатывать множественную электрическую информацию, используя одну область мозга, потому что задействуются различные синаптомы.

Ученые обнаружили аналогичные результаты, когда записывали электрические схемы мозга мышей, пытающихся выбрать между тремя вариантами награды. Различные синаптомы зажигались, когда выбор был правильным или неправильным. Подобно карте внутреннего мышления, синаптомы рисовала яркую картину того, о чем думала мышь, делая выбор.

Каждое поведение активирует отдельную синаптому. Каждая синаптома — это уникальный слепок мыслительного процесса.

Перепрограммирование синаптомы

Как и компьютерный код, синаптома, по всей видимости, лежит в основе вычислительного результата — решения или мысли. Что, если изменить этот код?

Подробная карта синапсов мозга приоткрыла завесу над загадкой мышления

Психиатрические заболевания зачастую имеют генетические причины, влияющие на белки в синапсе. Используя мышей, которые демонстрировали симптомы, схожие с шизофренией или аутизмом, ученые составили карты их синаптом — и обнаружили кардинальные изменения в том, как структурируются и соединяются различные подтипы синапсов в мозге.

Например, в ответ на обычные электрические схемы мозга, некоторые синаптические карты проявлялись слабо, другие же становились аномально сильными у мутантных мышей. Мутации могут менять синаптому и потенциально ведут к психиатрическим расстройствам. То есть, некоторые психиатрические заболевания «перепрограммируют» синаптому. Более сильные или просто новые карты синаптомы могут быть причиной того, что пациенты с шизофренией испытывают заблуждения и галлюцинации.

Значит вы — это ваша синаптома?

Возможно. Суть вас — воспоминания, мысли — похоже, запечатлевается в том, как активируются различные синапсы в ответ на ввод. Словно по отпечатку пальца, синаптому можно было бы прочитать, чтобы расшифровать, о чем вы думаете. Однако это исследование — только начало. Нейробиологам еще предстоит проанализировать сложные связи между синапсами и вами.

«Эта карта открывает множество новых направлений исследований, которые должны трансформировать наше понимание поведения и болезней мозга», говорит Грант.

Источник: news-ria.ru
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